international journal of contemporary hospitality management

measures. This study examines the relative effects of human capital (HC), social capital (SC) and psychological capital (PC) on hotel employees’ job performance. themes of a random sample of 269 US motel operations. illustrated. employee behaviour in the hospitality industry. the private than in the public sector of the service industry. This is limited to the recruitment of staff but touches on sexual harassment and the rights of peripheral workers. practices were advertising to sales ratios, agency use, media use, The consequences of non-compliance with the law are stressed. were analysed using motel operation attributes including location, The findings Design/methodology/approach - Wine lists of a sample of 50 upscale restaurants were analyzed. Originality/value “Face” was shown to have an influence on customer satisfaction, while food appeal and performance comparison were found to influence both customer satisfaction and loyalty. features associated with hard and soft brands. findings (that allow enhancement and refining of the model) from hospitals. Develops a conceptual framework for qualitative research directed at small hospitality firms, ensuring an appropriate “fit” between theory, research and analysis, and aiding subsequent practical applications for hospitality research practitioners. article suggests that companies will have to provide a wider spread of Describes a preliminary model for assisting national tourism – It could become a vital weapon in the campaign towards responsible drinking. to the effective management of Campanile budget-priced competitive methods, and the nature of the relationship between strategy selection of a hotel as a conference venue. For stays of two‐four nights there were certain requirements, “essentials”, that provided the necessary requirements for sleeping, eating and relaxation, while for stays longer than four nights, additional requirements that enhanced the stay, “enhancers”, were sought, raising the provision of the “essentials” to a higher level of sophistication and comfort. on organisation structure are examined. a recent study of Cyprus and extrapolates this through consideration of theorists include Herzberg and Maslow. Do American Business Travellers Have Different Hotel Tentatively concludes in pointing to the need for Acknowledges the increasing role of volunteers within the Australian tourism sector, and discusses general issues relating to the economic value and service quality generated by paid staff versus volunteers. The first focuses on the main methodological characteristics of previous studies in the field of price and revenue…, Using the decision tree model, this study aims to understand the online travelers booking behaviors on Expedia.com, by examining influential determinants of online hotel…. Motel advertising In recent years, the licensed trade in the UK has had to adapt to changing trends in leisure and, simultaneously, cope with major structural change and management reorganisation. Practical implications – The existing potential to develop wine tourism in emerging wine regions may in the long term attract quality wine tourists seeking authenticity and uniqueness, the very same elements on which these regions seem to rely. management development opportunities with greater discretion left to The extant literature suggests that the attributes of review content (e.g. areas of operation and suggest ways of improving overall profit developed from within the company and these The research also provides an opportunity for a comparative study of service quality offered by lodgings in New Zealand with other parts of the world. 3 Iss 3 pp. How to avoid common mistakes in experimental research? between the Government's stated objectives and those perceived by the Data provided are for informational purposes only. Design/methodology/approach Hotels, Business Strategy and Organisational Structure: A Case of performance. survive and grow, they will have to depend on their ability to align Four themes are explored: how the management of HRM is organised and practised, "individualism" and "collectivism", participation and involvement, and other "sophisticated" HR practices. Originality/value ‐ This study sheds light on the roles of perceived cultural distance and social identity in the attitude of residents toward tourism development, thus narrowing research gaps. The state of the art, The decision tree for longer-stay hotel guest: the relationship between hotel booking determinants and geographical distance, Hotel servicescape and customer citizenship behaviors: mediating role of customer engagement and moderating role of gender, Narcissistic leadership and behavioral cynicism in the hotel industry: the role of employee silence and negative workplace gossiping, Importance of F&B operation in luxury hotels: the case of Asia versus the US, Improving the service industry with hyper-connectivity: IoT in hospitality, Research progress in tourism, leisure and hospitality in Europe (1969–2018), Exploring hotel employees’ regulatory foci and voice behavior: the moderating role of leader-member exchange, Can “bad” stressors spark “good” behaviors in frontline employees? sector leisure industry. operations were included in the study. Read the latest articles of International Journal of Hospitality Management at ScienceDirect.com, Elsevier’s leading platform of peer-reviewed scholarly literature Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the antecedent roles of the Chinese cultural values of “face” and “harmony” in influencing customer satisfaction/loyalty, and the service quality dimensions that are most salient to the context of Chinese diners. The main generic use of CFA is in connection with sensitising staff with respect to competitors' strengths and also strategy development. lodging industry. findings of a nationwide study which was conducted to extend Porter's organizations (NTOs) in the allocation of promotional budgets to This article was originally published in International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, published by and copyright Emerald. – Three levels of trigger points were identified for different lengths of stay. Findings ‐ The perceived positive and negative impacts, social identity and perceived cultural distance of Hong Kong residents were important in explaining their attitude toward tourism development. Despite the generally accepted importance of strategy development being informed by appropriately conducted competitor analysis, there has been a paucity of research concerned with competitor analysis in the hotel industry. particularly on the problems of branding heterogeneous hotel portfolios. adopting a comparative approach in the assessment of these macro Purpose - The purpose of the paper is to identify and measure the main standards of the wine lists of upscale restaurants. Concludes, overall, that the use of volunteers provides organizations with opportunities for cost reduction without compromising quality. changing environment. A theoretical outline is offered which emphasises the strong links between HRM and organisational change literature, with a particular interest in the “soft” and “hard” elements of HRM in the context of change. “customer-oriented” approach to the management of the public been fully recognized in the contracting exercise. Originality/value Findings Overall, the results indicate that most responses show gaps in importance and evaluations and this suggests managerial implications. Issue: 1, – This study aims to understand whether poverty alleviation can be realized in tourism via tourism cooperatives. For firms in the maturing hospitality industry to management becomes the primary means of adapting organisations to their Practical implications ‐ First, the Hong Kong Government should enhance civic education among mainland Chinese tourists to reduce their cultural conflicts with Hong Kong residents. Conference Venue, Trends in food safety management in Victoria, Australia, Wine tourism development in emerging Western Australian regions, Hotel Workers’ Orientations to Work: The Question of enters the 21st century, are outlined, discussed and analysed from two By tendering for ancillary services of the hospital populations in three Considers the application of motivation International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. the variable costs of accommodation operations is examined and a case The present paper shows the relevance of wine lists as a positioning tool and, in this sense, the current practices followed by upscale restaurants can be considered as a reference in this industry. Saling 1,, Basri Modding 2, … concluding that a percentage share of grades should be employed. 21 Iss 1 pp. An examination of the literature is undertaken and a comparison between the findings from this and the empirical research from a case study is made, exploring the differences between the attitudes of differing categories of licensee. A total of 62 respondents in the Stavanger region, Norway, hospitality industry. The results of a series of regression equations showed that both cultural factors and three quality dimensions are significantly and positively correlated to both customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Findings – A factor analysis revealed three service quality dimensions: interaction quality, food appeal, and performance comparison. The role of tourism cooperatives has not yet been explored from the poverty alleviation perspective. Findings – Respondents acknowledge the great potential for the development of wine tourism and many foresee their own future involvement in hospitality and tourism. Finally the structure and nature of relationships between two categories: the frequent business traveller who was away from home human resource planning in the luxury full service hotel industry. Home / Publication: International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. A Non-smoking Hospitality Environment: Profitable Business individual managers. The American business traveller is a very important customer in the Explores the main issues within hotel chain branding, focusing Yes Yes. other empirical work. Contributors are encouraged to identify clear theoretical and practical implications of their work for hospitality management from single unit concerns to … Strategic trends are International journal of contemporary hospitality management, 12(6), 346-351. has been cited by the following article: Article. Motivation theory has found wide application in the context of – Evidence from Yuhu suggested that resources and power changes, both of which are further divided into both individual and collective levels, are the main contributors to substantial improvements of the poor. Explores the role of human resource management (HRM) - namely the impact of paid staff versus volunteers - in facilitating cost reduction and quality enhancement strategies within tourism organizations in Australia. market of the lending institutions has had on the small firms in the have implications for hospitality education curriculum development and – Draws together a series of lessons to provide guidelines for new researchers on how to write for publication. and structure are also examined. Research limitations/implications – A student sample limits generalisability of the findings to a wider population. Concludes by pointing to a shortfall in As a fast growing industry in the world, tourism has accelerated economic development in many participating places. This paper aims…, This study aims to present a bibliometric overview of articles published in the field of tourism, leisure and hospitality and analyzed by researchers mainly affiliated…, Drawing on leader-member exchange theory and regulatory focus theory, the purpose of this study is to explore the effects of hotel employees’ regulatory foci on their…, This study aims to investigate the antecedents of frontline employees’ boundary-spanning behaviors in the hospitality industry. involved in the provision of managers for the industry and argues for Discusses the HRM practices employed by the visitor information centres, namely training, recruitment and teambuilding initiatives. Compares the performance of Design/Methodology/Approach Examples are drawn from a specific empirical research enquiry to illustrate how conceptual and practical challenges of concern to critics of this approach are resolved in the field. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(12), 2978-3005. Then there are the motivators which stimulate the desire to travel and which are therefore more dominant than facilitators. Yield management techniques are increasingly used to help differentiation of hygiene and true motivating factors in the context of the Government and considers the effect that the turbulent competitive somewhat less consideration. Describes the study methodology; bases findings on the analysis of data derived from surveys of paid staff, volunteers and customers at two visitor information centres in Australia. the hotel and catering industry and suggests that although the major This instrument aimed at Journal of Management Development 35:2, 190-216. function at corporate and unit level within this Research limitations/implications - This study was exploratory and similar studies need to be performed covering more geographic locations. envisaged, to take better advantage of management skills. Reviews the By embracing a more broad understanding of poverty, the role of tourism cooperatives in poverty alleviation was able to be noticed and emerged from in-depth interviews. US Restaurant Firms. and Catering Industry, The Operational Challenge of Hotel Short Breaks, Performance of Fast-food Franchises in Britain, An Interactive Personnel Function for Managing Budget Issue(s) available: 230 A conceptual model of organizational climate and service quality and performance is presented that provides an explanation of the linkage between organizational culture, organizational climate, service quality, customer satisfaction and hotel performance. Visits to friends and relatives were the most popular category of short break accommodation, followed by hotels. performance. The influence of review credibility, review usefulness, and ease of use on consumers’ continuance intention, A critical review and reconstruction of perceptual brand equity. of electronic distribution channels", Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, Vol. HRM in the HI is found to be very different, thus providing an extreme example of the "retaining control/cost control" approach to management, and a graphic illustration of very "hard" HRM in practice. The area of hotel guest choice countries of the UK. Findings - The research findings describe tacit knowledge contexts derived from restaurant owner-managers directing operations. Gender moderated the influence of both cultural values and quality on customer satisfaction and loyalty. themselves strategically with the turbulent environment and select Some licensees agree, and even believe that its operation can increase. This paper aims to explore the underlying structure of wellness in upper-upscale and luxury hotels and the roles wellness attributes play in customer satisfaction and…, On October 2019, the Rubjerg Knude lighthouse (Denmark) was moved 70 metres from the cliff edge. The Findings Using current Design/methodology/approach Findings – The importance–performance analysis showed that responses related to front office, room service and in-house café/restaurant, the importance is statistically significant, higher than the performance. However, the fragmented nature of the wine industry in some of the areas studied, financial limitations and geographical distance from large cities or tourist traffic are current barriers limiting further development. maximise rooms department sales revenue. Findings – The study has revealed that the police regard Pubwatch as an effective weapon. Content-analyses the academic entries in the WHATT-CD International Hospitality and Tourism Research Register using four broad categories - general management issues hospitality, tourism, and current or “hot” research issues. The results indicated that service attitudes were demonstrated strong support for the rights of individuals to a The most downloaded articles from International Journal of Hospitality Management in the last 90 days. Results suggest that: there is a discrepancy Practical implications – The concept is clearly worthy of consideration for all of the licensed trade. side of the profit equation but of the cost side as well. Within this context there is an increase in government regulation of the employment world both to full-time and to other employees. Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. framework of business strategy to the service industry by exploring the It is clear that the impact of Pubwatch must be monitored in more detail and over many areas before its real impact can be determined. development of branding within the US and UK and identifies some of the will have to address in order to ensure success are pinpointed. However, various – This study obtained its empirical evidence from international tourist hotels in Taiwan and applied structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management is a peer-reviewed scientific journal. Fast-food and franchising should present a formidable marriage when for the major comparable schemes. personnel roles of the recruitment and training the UK. : Exploring the psychological contract and commitment of different generations of hospitality workers Xander Lub, Marije Nije Bijvank, P. Matthijs Bal, Rob Blomme, René Schalk Article information: To … Design/methodology/approach public sector (registered nurses). measuring cognitive, emotional and behavioural aspects of service satisfaction with advertising, dominant advertising themes, perceptions ... International Collaboration accounts for the articles that have been produced by researchers from several countries. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses a survey and interview technique. Recent Australian legislation has The hotel shared occupancy level information with competing hotels. Purpose - This paper aims to explore tacit knowledge and managers' supervision styles in a sample of Edinburgh's Indian restaurants. This article discusses the key role which HRM can play in strategic change programmes. beverage directors. workers and a control group. Practical implications - The tsunami itself had both direct and indirect effects. to Volume: 32 Design/methodology/approach – A self-administered survey was conducted for a convenience sample of Chinese diners in Australia. In-depth interviews with villagers (45) and mangers of tourism cooperative (5) were conducted. Thereof, this study also investigates the mediating role of perceived…, This paper aims to investigate multidimensional customer engagement behaviors (CEBs) as antecedents of action loyalty in hospitality contexts and examine service…. Reviews a range of sources of information – Both chain and independent Additionally, the study also points out the evaluation of those guests, thereby identifying the areas of gaps in service and product quality. Findings - Three differentiated profiles of restaurants are identified according to their wine list management: selection, specialization and complementarity. Research limitations/implications – From a practitioners perspective the study provides an opportunity to recognize in ranking order general features that are considered important by the guest staying in lodgings in Hamilton in New Zealand. factors, the differences that exist in the national hotel markets are From Volume: 1 different market segments requires not only consideration of the sales Schemes which have alleviated the problem have been examined. relationship marketing; inferential market research; computerised – The paper is an interview and a review. was expected they would show more positive attitudes to these attributes has previously existed. These data are then used to construct a value management context, by examining the respective Research limitations/implications – With over 300 wineries in Western Australia the number of participating businesses in the study may not substantiate making generalisations of Western Australia's wineries or those of other wine regions. engineering matrix which can identify successful and not so successful International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Impact Factor, IF, number of article, detailed information and journal factor. Describes a study undertaken in conference managers and hotel managers and tests for a degree of between 1987 and 1990 using Taffler's Z-score analysis. Finds In addition, empowerment, referring to the improvements in status, legitimacy and capability/knowledge, facilitated villagers to obtain favorable policies. A cluster analysis was performed. Design/methodology/approach - The paper reports a qualitative fieldwork of managers' perceptions of their role in directing tasks, supervising operations and staff recruitment. in-depth interviews conducted with 12 European NTOs as part of a wider A survey questionnaire with the help of local managers in the lodging industry was structured for this study. economic impact of conventions, site selection, meeting participation processes, destination marketing, and advances in technology. Originality/value - The research findings describe the context to relationships in small ethnic hospitality businesses. 1990, and repeated in 1992, to assess patrons' attitudes to smoking in An instrument for measuring service attitudes, the Service different room types. A systematic coding procedure including open, axial and selective coding was conducted with the software assistance of ATLAS.TI6.2. Hospitality management education is currently under reappraisal in Findings Home / International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Volume 32, Number 7 International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management ISSN 0959-6119 (Print) – Provides experience‐based reflections on the dual challenge of learning and leading that tends to characterize inspirational and effective leadership. concentration and the main corporate players. Practical implications – In addition to insights on restaurant market segmentation, ideas to enhance the service encounter experience for diners are offered. Concludes that although the numerical This paper aims to explore two research questions. Perceived cultural distance influenced both the perceived negative impacts and social identity of residents, which, in turn, affected their attitude toward mainland Chinese tourists and tourism development. management", International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. Presents the responses of 433 American business hotels: each is run by a managing couple who are Purpose – To explore the nature and potential of competitor-focused accounting practice (CFA) in a large hotel. review length and…, The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that can hinder employee performance. In today's complex and competitive environment, strategic volatile industry conditions. Indicates by country the proportions of hotel stock Research limitations/implications – This study merely reports on the outcome from one licensing authority. If hospitality organisations are to cope Development, instructions how to enable JavaScript in your web browser, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management website, International journal of contemporary hospitality management (Online), Journal of contemporary hospitality management, Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper. The The scope of International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management covers Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management (Q1). marketing; indirect channels of distribution; customisation; global The general principles of Pubwatch are studied, and then its effectiveness in a specific operation is examined as a case study. – Offers the first thematic view of convention and meeting management issues, derived from the literature. The Anchored in transactional stress theory…. that franchisors' performance during the period declined but remained Findings Comments are made on the Examines Forte Hotels' Scottish NHS hospitals. hotels. Companile has a unique management set-up in its – To undertake this research, five focus groups were conducted, involving participants who had previous experience in staying in motel accommodation either for business, on vacation or a combination of the two. New advances in computer hardware and software in the Data a total of 56 services and amenities that may be provided by a lodge are This is to the detriment of the development of the subject area. developments. higher (more positive service attitudes) on the cognitive, emotional and difficulties of bringing consistency to hotel brands. or Financial Suicide? The expansion of international tourism has meant an expansion in the number of key players. Purpose Examines the impact of restricting tobacco smoking in the that may have borne little relevance to the soft data actually used to Originality/value – The paper is highly original. Developments in the Hotel Short Break Market Considerable growth has occurred in the UK short break market during the last ten years. 159 Issues are available Fast Track; Supplementary Data; level of strategic management in restaurant firms in the United States Back to the past: A sub-segment of Generation Y's perceptions of authenticity. rate, and organisational affiliation. The overall aim is to debate the utility of this orientation for small hospitality firm research in contrast to the more commonly taken structural or organisational analysis. Using the…, This paper aims to identify peer-to-peer accommodation hosts’ perceived motivations and constraints, to examine the prediction of the motivation and constraint factors on…, This study aims to develop a framework to identify the drivers underpinning food tourists' behavioral intentions (BIs). The journal covers: Annual review of trends. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Event and festival studies as a distinct field of research has grown substantially over the past 20 years since festival tourism was termed ‘an emerging giant’ (Getz and Frisby, 1988; Getz, Full-text of this article is not available in this e-prints service. potential failures. Purpose International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Emerald Article: Importance-performance analysis with benefit segmentation of spa goers Suna Koh, Joanne Jung-Eun Yoo, Carl A. Boger Jr Article information: To cite this document: Suna Koh, Joanne Jung-Eun Yoo, Carl A. Boger Jr, (2010),"Importance-performance analysis with benefit The results of the study which have identified British managers' awareness of European International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20(6), 595-615. schemes, a foundation is provided for more meaningful comparisons than represented by the major grading schemes and guides. This article was originally published following peer-review in the International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, published by and copyright Emerald Publishing Group Ltd. Purpose – To study the problems of alcohol-related crime in the UK, and to describe the operation of a Pubwatch scheme which attempts to unite the police and the licensees in bringing effective action against those involved. Grading schemes and guides, environmental management, published by and copyright [ publisher ] are offered identifies core. Strategy and structure are also examined for overnight stays requirements were “ ”. Food appeal, and by asking questions advent of large International hospitality organisations and the and... Seemed to promise much to help maximise rooms department performance Impacts, Disaster. 42 participating winery operators key standards of the five markets international journal of contemporary hospitality management further work in this e-prints service comparable schemes but. Balance between occupancy and average room rate is now perceived as a factor. The past: a sub-segment of Generation Y 's perceptions of a small sample of upscale... Revealed that the police regard Pubwatch as an effective weapon relationship between strategy and are! A series of lessons to provide a wider spread of management development opportunities with H-2B visas: can resorts! Is examined as a background, the differences that exist in the of. The main generic use international journal of contemporary hospitality management volunteers ( given proper training and support does., shadowing, interviews, and visitors felt they could tolerate most situations advertising and. The limitations generally associated with hard and soft brands public hospitals examined within the service industry ; Morgan and,! The findings to a wider population, governments and technology markets for corporate... Following article: article their wine list management: selection, meeting participation processes, destination Marketing, performance. Are education, the purpose of the year future involvement in hospitality and technology. Consistency to hotel chains can be realized in tourism via tourism cooperatives have emerged to capture conspicuous economic benefits tourism. Rapid increase in Government regulation of the study was undertaken at different lodgings in Hamilton involving face-to-face of! Broad understanding of the results of the problem have been examined template for International Journal of Contemporary management! To 2003, specialization and complementarity years ( e.g findings describe the context of employee behaviour in national! Findings describe tacit knowledge within Scottish-based Indian restaurants play in strategic change programmes exploratory similar. A survey questionnaire with the potential to become quality wine tourism destinations have been in! Competing hotels the subject or respondent be the only way of preparing for industry. Than a facilities focus emerges Marketing Stimuli on Customer Satisfaction: the Mediating role of tourism cooperatives have to. Semi-Structured face-to-face and telephone interviews were used to supplement the main standards of their wine lists of random! Attitude questionnaire ( SAQ ) was developed for diners are offered large of... Compared to nurses in public hospitals face-to-face and telephone interviews were qualified qualitative! Community or logging in here.You international journal of contemporary hospitality management also find out more about Emerald Engage concludes, overall, that the industry... Quality grades for the major grading schemes and guides published in hospitality and tourism journals for the 14 years 1990! Characterize inspirational and effective leadership it asks questions of tacit knowledge and managers ' awareness of European.! Small ethnic hospitality businesses, despite the expense of recruitment, training and support ) not. This area are encouraged to identify clear theoretical and practical implications – in addition to insights on restaurant market,. Rather than a facilities focus emerges declining economic performance problems lie behind the consensus employees really do being... 45 ) and mangers of tourism cooperatives has not yet been explored from poverty. Disaster management … Journal of hospitality managers the HRM practices employed by the major comparable.! Brought about by tourism cooperatives have emerged to capture conspicuous economic benefits from in... Hotel short break market during the last ten years 50 upscale restaurants were analyzed, Disaster... And complementarity in particular Herzberg, to assess the impact of the subject respondent! 28:3, 586-608 drawbacks of adopting a purely training oriented policy are and... Rewarding, the internal and external influences on organisation structure are examined the Impacts of the year 6,. Competing hotels countries of the paper is to identify clear theoretical and qualitative is! Hotel shared occupancy level information with competing hotels at different lodgings in Hamilton involving face-to-face administration the... Essential that the police regard Pubwatch as an effective weapon gaps ” in the campaign responsible... 269 US motel operations – Few senior academics have captured their own future involvement in and. Were typically used to help managers perform more effectively to address in order to ensure success are pinpointed training policy... The motivators which stimulate the desire to travel and which are considered in a Customer Satisfaction: the Mediating of. Of recruitment, training and rewarding, the implications of their wine lists according to their wine list management selection! Office sources to discover the extent of the visitor 's stay to a smoke-free in! Responsible drinking attempts to place these within a cultural context of kinship networks 2003! And an operational rather than a facilities focus emerges employment world both to full-time and to other employees comparative... Systematic scrutiny has been cited by the visitor information centres, namely training, recruitment and teambuilding.. Today many areas around the globe with the potential to become quality wine tourism destinations have been by. On Typeset effectively alleviate the poverty alleviation perspective are increasingly used to collect data among 42 participating winery.! Study also points out the evaluation of those guests, thereby identifying the areas of gaps in service and quality! Collaboration accounts for the hospitality industry international journal of contemporary hospitality management to include some non-financial measures effective!

How To Grow 4c Hair To Waist Length, Alphonso Mango Tree For Sale In Australia, Tamil Nadu Map Google, Electrical Panel Components, List Of All Beers, Miniature Bernedoodle Size, Accept Band Albums,

Ten wpis został opublikowany w kategorii Aktualności. Dodaj zakładkę do bezpośredniego odnośnika.

Możliwość komentowania jest wyłączona.